b'32WHITESIDE ESSAY CUP WINNERBY STUDENT MALIKA MANIARHis main work was in the expansion of socio-culturalthe Inuit people. He spent the previous year studying anthropology, linguistics, physical anthropology, andthe local language, Inuktitut, and the customs of the Franz Boas: the Father ofarchaeology. This essay will argue that Boas mainnative Inuit people. contributions were through his innovation in the Modern Anthropology paradigm shift of conceptual perspective through cultural relativism and historical particularism, and through this, the renovation of ethnographic field Franz Boas is rightly accredited as thework. father of Modern Anthropology and asBoas theory of cultural relativism, the the founder of American anthropology.theory that cultures should be judged by His contributions to the field oftheir own merit, not in comparison with anthropology -the study of peopleothers, helped to debunk the prevailing relevant to their environments andnotion of racial superiority that was culture- helped to turn it into a prevalent at the time. legitimate social science. Boas basic approach to work was that culture was to be understood from detailed studies of specific cultures. His belief in fieldwork over office work would transform the very basis of how anthropological theories were formed, integrated, and communicated, and are still used today.Franz Boas scientific background helped him to bring a rigorous scientific method to anthropology. Originally a student of physical sciences, Boas earned his PhD in Physics and Geography from the University of Kiel in 1881. It was his love of geography that brought him on an expedition to the Canadian Arctic, to map as much of the relatively uncharted coastline of Baffin Island in 1883, and to study the culture of'